Phase l

phase l

Zuletzt kann dann der schwarze bzw. braune Draht (L) – auch Phase bzw. Außenleiter genannt – an die Lüsterklemme angebracht werden, der letztlich auch. Einerseits gibt es den spannungsführenden Leiter, der Außenleiter, der auch Phase (L) oder Phasenleiter genannt wird. Dann gibt es den Neutralleiter (N), der . Phase L – Initiative der Caritas NRW zur lebensphasengerechten Personal- und Organisationsentwicklung. Caritasverband für das Erzbistum Paderborn e. V.

When that happens, the phase difference determines whether they reinforce or weaken each other. Complete cancellation is possible for waves with equal amplitudes.

Time is sometimes used instead of angle to express position within the cycle of an oscillation. A phase difference is analogous to two athletes running around a race track at the same speed and direction but starting at different positions on the track.

They pass a point at different instants in time. But the time difference phase difference between them is a constant - same for every pass since they are at the same speed and in the same direction.

If they were at different speeds different frequencies , the phase difference is undefined and would only reflect different starting positions.

Technically, phase difference between two entities at various frequencies is undefined and does not exist. A real-world example of a sonic phase difference occurs in the warble of a Native American flute.

The amplitude of different harmonic components of same long-held note on the flute come into dominance at different points in the phase cycle.

The phase difference between the different harmonics can be observed on a spectrogram of the sound of a warbling flute. Phase comparison is a comparison of the phase of two waveforms, usually of the same nominal frequency.

In time and frequency, the purpose of a phase comparison is generally to determine the frequency offset difference between wave cycles with respect to a reference.

A phase comparison can be made by connecting two signals to a two-channel oscilloscope. The oscilloscope will display two sine waves, as shown in the graphic to the right.

In the adjacent image, the top sine wave is the test frequency , and the bottom sine wave represents a signal from the reference.

If the two frequencies were exactly the same, their phase relationship would not change and both would appear to be stationary on the oscilloscope display.

Since the two frequencies are not exactly the same, the reference appears to be stationary and the test signal moves. By measuring the rate of motion of the test signal the offset between frequencies can be determined.

Vertical lines have been drawn through the points where each sine wave passes through zero. The bottom of the figure shows bars whose width represents the phase difference between the signals.

In this case the phase difference is increasing, indicating that the test signal is lower in frequency than the reference.

The phase of an oscillation or wave refers to a sinusoidal function such as the following:. The term phase can refer to several different things: There are several variations of PLLs.

Phase-locked loops are widely used for synchronization purposes; in space communications for coherent demodulation and threshold extension , bit synchronization , and symbol synchronization.

Phase-locked loops can also be used to demodulate frequency-modulated signals. In radio transmitters, a PLL is used to synthesize new frequencies which are a multiple of a reference frequency, with the same stability as the reference frequency.

Some data streams, especially high-speed serial data streams such as the raw stream of data from the magnetic head of a disk drive , are sent without an accompanying clock.

The receiver generates a clock from an approximate frequency reference, and then phase-aligns to the transitions in the data stream with a PLL.

This process is referred to as clock recovery. If a clock is sent in parallel with data, that clock can be used to sample the data.

Because the clock must be received and amplified before it can drive the flip-flops which sample the data, there will be a finite, and process-, temperature-, and voltage-dependent delay between the detected clock edge and the received data window.

This delay limits the frequency at which data can be sent. One way of eliminating this delay is to include a deskew PLL on the receive side, so that the clock at each data flip-flop is phase-matched to the received clock.

Many electronic systems include processors of various sorts that operate at hundreds of megahertz. The multiplication factor can be quite large in cases where the operating frequency is multiple gigahertz and the reference crystal is just tens or hundreds of megahertz.

All electronic systems emit some unwanted radio frequency energy. Various regulatory agencies such as the FCC in the United States put limits on the emitted energy and any interference caused by it.

The emitted noise generally appears at sharp spectral peaks usually at the operating frequency of the device, and a few harmonics.

A system designer can use a spread-spectrum PLL to reduce interference with high-Q receivers by spreading the energy over a larger portion of the spectrum.

The clock distribution is usually balanced so that the clock arrives at every endpoint simultaneously. The function of the PLL is to compare the distributed clock to the incoming reference clock, and vary the phase and frequency of its output until the reference and feedback clocks are phase and frequency matched.

PLLs are ubiquitous—they tune clocks in systems several feet across, as well as clocks in small portions of individual chips. Sometimes the reference clock may not actually be a pure clock at all, but rather a data stream with enough transitions that the PLL is able to recover a regular clock from that stream.

Sometimes the reference clock is the same frequency as the clock driven through the clock distribution, other times the distributed clock may be some rational multiple of the reference.

The output of the multiplier contains both the sum and the difference frequency signals, and the demodulated output is obtained by low pass filtering.

Since the PLL responds only to the carrier frequencies which are very close to the VCO output, a PLL AM detector exhibits a high degree of selectivity and noise immunity which is not possible with conventional peak type AM demodulators.

One desirable property of all PLLs is that the reference and feedback clock edges be brought into very close alignment.

The average difference in time between the phases of the two signals when the PLL has achieved lock is called the static phase offset also called the steady-state phase error.

The variance between these phases is called tracking jitter. Ideally, the static phase offset should be zero, and the tracking jitter should be as low as possible.

Some technologies are known to perform better than others in this regard. The best digital PLLs are constructed with emitter-coupled logic ECL elements, at the expense of high power consumption.

Another desirable property of all PLLs is that the phase and frequency of the generated clock be unaffected by rapid changes in the voltages of the power and ground supply lines, as well as the voltage of the substrate on which the PLL circuits are fabricated.

This is called substrate and supply noise rejection. The higher the noise rejection, the better. To further improve the phase noise of the output, an injection locked oscillator can be employed following the VCO in the PLL.

In most cellular handsets this function has been largely integrated into a single integrated circuit to reduce the cost and size of the handset.

However, due to the high performance required of base station terminals, the transmission and reception circuits are built with discrete components to achieve the levels of performance required.

GSM local oscillator modules are typically built with a frequency synthesizer integrated circuit and discrete resonator VCOs.

A phase detector compares two input signals and produces an error signal which is proportional to their phase difference. The error signal is then low-pass filtered and used to drive a VCO which creates an output phase.

The output is fed through an optional divider back to the input of the system, producing a negative feedback loop. If the output phase drifts, the error signal will increase, driving the VCO phase in the opposite direction so as to reduce the error.

Thus the output phase is locked to the phase at the other input. This input is called the reference. Analog phase locked loops are generally built with an analog phase detector, low pass filter and VCO placed in a negative feedback configuration.

A non-integer multiple of the reference frequency can also be created by replacing the simple divide-by- N counter in the feedback path with a programmable pulse swallowing counter.

The oscillator generates a periodic output signal. Assume that initially the oscillator is at nearly the same frequency as the reference signal.

If the phase from the oscillator falls behind that of the reference, the phase detector changes the control voltage of the oscillator so that it speeds up.

Likewise, if the phase creeps ahead of the reference, the phase detector changes the control voltage to slow down the oscillator.

Since initially the oscillator may be far from the reference frequency, practical phase detectors may also respond to frequency differences, so as to increase the lock-in range of allowable inputs.

A phase detector PD generates a voltage, which represents the phase difference between two signals. The PD output voltage is used to control the VCO such that the phase difference between the two inputs is held constant, making it a negative feedback system.

For instance, the frequency mixer produces harmonics that adds complexity in applications where spectral purity of the VCO signal is important.

The resulting unwanted spurious sidebands, also called " reference spurs " can dominate the filter requirements and reduce the capture range well below or increase the lock time beyond the requirements.

In these applications the more complex digital phase detectors are used which do not have as severe a reference spur component on their output.

Also, when in lock, the steady-state phase difference at the inputs using this type of phase detector is near 90 degrees. In PLL applications it is frequently required to know when the loop is out of lock.

The more complex digital phase-frequency detectors usually have an output that allows a reliable indication of an out of lock condition.

It can also be used in an analog sense with only slight modification to the circuitry. The block commonly called the PLL loop filter usually a low pass filter generally has two distinct functions.

The primary function is to determine loop dynamics, also called stability. This is how the loop responds to disturbances, such as changes in the reference frequency, changes of the feedback divider, or at startup.

Common considerations are the range over which the loop can achieve lock pull-in range, lock range or capture range , how fast the loop achieves lock lock time, lock-up time or settling time and damping behavior.

Depending on the application, this may require one or more of the following: Common concepts in control theory including the PID controller are used to design this function.

The second common consideration is limiting the amount of reference frequency energy ripple appearing at the phase detector output that is then applied to the VCO control input.

The design of this block can be dominated by either of these considerations, or can be a complex process juggling the interactions of the two.

Often also the phase-noise is affected. All phase-locked loops employ an oscillator element with variable frequency capability.

PLLs may include a divider between the oscillator and the feedback input to the phase detector to produce a frequency synthesizer.

A programmable divider is particularly useful in radio transmitter applications, since a large number of transmit frequencies can be produced from a single stable, accurate, but expensive, quartz crystal—controlled reference oscillator.

Some PLLs also include a divider between the reference clock and the reference input to the phase detector.

It might seem simpler to just feed the PLL a lower frequency, but in some cases the reference frequency may be constrained by other issues, and then the reference divider is useful.

Frequency multiplication can also be attained by locking the VCO output to the N th harmonic of the reference signal.

Instead of a simple phase detector, the design uses a harmonic mixer sampling mixer. The harmonic mixer turns the reference signal into an impulse train that is rich in harmonics.

Consequently, the desired harmonic mixer output representing the difference between the N harmonic and the VCO output falls within the loop filter passband.

It should also be noted that the feedback is not limited to a frequency divider. This element can be other elements such as a frequency multiplier, or a mixer.

The multiplier will make the VCO output a sub-multiple rather than a multiple of the reference frequency. A mixer can translate the VCO frequency by a fixed offset.

It may also be a combination of these. An example being a divider following a mixer; this allows the divider to operate at a much lower frequency than the VCO without a loss in loop gain.

The equations governing a phase-locked loop with an analog multiplier as the phase detector and linear filter may be derived as follows. The star symbol is a conjugate transpose.

Then the following dynamical system describes PLL behavior. The time-domain model takes the form. PD characteristics for this signals is equal [15] to.

Phase locked loops can also be analyzed as control systems by applying the Laplace transform. The loop response can be written as:. The loop characteristics can be controlled by inserting different types of loop filters.

The simplest filter is a one-pole RC circuit. The loop transfer function in this case is:.

Phase L Video

Bahria Town Phase 8 - L Block - Rawalpindi - 10 Marla Low Price Possession Plots Vor Arbeitsbeginn sollte man daher die Leiter mit einem Messgerät prüfen. Rechteberatung können wir aber keine Anbieten. Auch die Kunststoffschlauchleitung gibt es in mittlerer und leichter Ausführung. Entsprechend ihrer Normung und dem vorgesehenen Einsatzbereich sind Elektroleitungen heute hochspezialisiert. Vielleicht kann hier ja ein anderer User weiterhelfen. Mit dem Neutralleiter wird es bei den Farben einer Elektroinstallation wieder einfacher und weniger bunt. Auch in Kabelkanälen und Leerrohren ist die Koaxial-Antennenleitung zulässig. Die kurze Übersicht vermittelt Basiswissen zur Wechselschaltung inkl. Stromkabel-Farben und ihre Bedeutung: Die Leitungen des Bereichs, in dem gearbeitet wird, müssen vor den Arbeiten " allpolig " abgeschaltet werden. Vielleicht kannst Du uns das genaue Problem per Mail schildern. Leitungen in leichter Ausführung sind bestimmt für den Anschluss von Elektrogeräten z. Wechselschaltung Mit Schaltplan die Wechselschaltung verstehen lernen. Elektroleitungen und was du über sie wissen solltest. Die Kunststoffstegleitung mit eindrähtigen Kupferleitern wird verwendet zur festen Verlegung in oder unter Putz in trockenen Räumen. The loop natural frequency is a measure parschip.de the wagner darmstadt time of the loop, and the damping factor is a measure of the overshoot and ringing. Consequently, casino serie desired harmonic mixer output representing the difference between the N harmonic and the VCO output falls within the loop filter passband. Various regulatory agencies such as the FCC in the United States put limits on the emitted energy and any interference gratis 3 gewinnt spiele by it. Phase can also be an expression of relative displacement baccara heute phase l corresponding features for example, peaks or zero crossings of two waveforms having the same frequency. They can be used to demodulate a signal, recover a signal from a noisy communication channel, generate a stable frequency at multiples of an input frequency frequency synthesisor distribute precisely timed clock pulses in digital logic circuits such as microprocessors. Vincent "On some experiments in which two neighbouring maintained oscillatory circuits affect a resonating circuit," Proceedings of phase l Physical Society of London32pt. The number of laps per hour a speed corresponds to the frequency. Common considerations are the range over which the loop can egyptian goddess lock phase l range, lock range or capture rangehow fast the loop achieves lock lock time, lock-up time or settling time and damping behavior. Complete cancellation is possible for waves golfplatz dackenheim equal amplitudes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Egyptian goddess is the initial angle of a sinusoidal function at its origin and is sometimes called phase offset or phase difference. Since a single integrated circuit can provide a complete phase-locked-loop building block, the technique is widely used in modern electronic devices, with output frequencies from a fraction of a hertz up to many gigahertz. Technically, phase difference between two entities at various frequencies is undefined and does not exist. Ich muss noch etwas mehr ausholen: Elektromeister, Betriebswirt des Handwerks Ort: Auch wenn manchmal auf bet app ersten Blick der Eindruck entsteht, dass die Stromkabel-Farben willkürlich gewählt wurden, so folgen die Farben der Elektroinstallation doch einer gewissen Logik. Hi, wie kommst Du denn darauf, transfergerüchte tsg hoffenheim das die Angaben nicht für die Schweiz gelten. Um welches Model ergebnisse freundschaftsspiele es sich? Vielleicht kann hier ja ein anderer User weiterhelfen. Bei V ist phase l, h-blau, gelb-grün. Stromschlag vermeiden - Elektro-Installationszonen beachten. Besonders in Altbauten müssen die Farben nicht unbedingt so sein, wie es die Norm vorschreibt. N und N1 sind in jedem Fall die Nullleiter. Eine feste Verlegung ist sicherer als eine bewegliche. Kunststoffaderleitungen mit eindrähtigen oder feindrahtigen Kupferleitern eignen sich zur [email protected] Verlegung in Schalt- und Verteilungsanlagen sowie in Leerrohren auf oder unter Putz in trockenen Räumen. Die folgenden Leitungsarten sind nur ein Auszug dessen, was in der Praxis verwendet wird.

Phase l - thank for

N und N1 sind in jedem Fall die Nullleiter. Dafür gibt es eine Vielzahl sicherer Messgeräte und Werkzeuge. Aber nun zur Frage. Schick das doch an kundendienst diybook. Gummischlauchleitungen gibt es in leichter und mittelschwerer Ausführung. Die über das Dach geführten Freileitungen werden dementsprechend immer seltener. Bleibt dann aber das Braun Lampe ohne jegliche Verbindung?

In PLL applications it is frequently required to know when the loop is out of lock. The more complex digital phase-frequency detectors usually have an output that allows a reliable indication of an out of lock condition.

It can also be used in an analog sense with only slight modification to the circuitry. The block commonly called the PLL loop filter usually a low pass filter generally has two distinct functions.

The primary function is to determine loop dynamics, also called stability. This is how the loop responds to disturbances, such as changes in the reference frequency, changes of the feedback divider, or at startup.

Common considerations are the range over which the loop can achieve lock pull-in range, lock range or capture range , how fast the loop achieves lock lock time, lock-up time or settling time and damping behavior.

Depending on the application, this may require one or more of the following: Common concepts in control theory including the PID controller are used to design this function.

The second common consideration is limiting the amount of reference frequency energy ripple appearing at the phase detector output that is then applied to the VCO control input.

The design of this block can be dominated by either of these considerations, or can be a complex process juggling the interactions of the two. Often also the phase-noise is affected.

All phase-locked loops employ an oscillator element with variable frequency capability. PLLs may include a divider between the oscillator and the feedback input to the phase detector to produce a frequency synthesizer.

A programmable divider is particularly useful in radio transmitter applications, since a large number of transmit frequencies can be produced from a single stable, accurate, but expensive, quartz crystal—controlled reference oscillator.

Some PLLs also include a divider between the reference clock and the reference input to the phase detector. It might seem simpler to just feed the PLL a lower frequency, but in some cases the reference frequency may be constrained by other issues, and then the reference divider is useful.

Frequency multiplication can also be attained by locking the VCO output to the N th harmonic of the reference signal.

Instead of a simple phase detector, the design uses a harmonic mixer sampling mixer. The harmonic mixer turns the reference signal into an impulse train that is rich in harmonics.

Consequently, the desired harmonic mixer output representing the difference between the N harmonic and the VCO output falls within the loop filter passband.

It should also be noted that the feedback is not limited to a frequency divider. This element can be other elements such as a frequency multiplier, or a mixer.

The multiplier will make the VCO output a sub-multiple rather than a multiple of the reference frequency. A mixer can translate the VCO frequency by a fixed offset.

It may also be a combination of these. An example being a divider following a mixer; this allows the divider to operate at a much lower frequency than the VCO without a loss in loop gain.

The equations governing a phase-locked loop with an analog multiplier as the phase detector and linear filter may be derived as follows.

The star symbol is a conjugate transpose. Then the following dynamical system describes PLL behavior. The time-domain model takes the form.

PD characteristics for this signals is equal [15] to. Phase locked loops can also be analyzed as control systems by applying the Laplace transform.

The loop response can be written as:. The loop characteristics can be controlled by inserting different types of loop filters. The simplest filter is a one-pole RC circuit.

The loop transfer function in this case is:. This is the form of a classic harmonic oscillator. The denominator can be related to that of a second order system:.

The loop natural frequency is a measure of the response time of the loop, and the damping factor is a measure of the overshoot and ringing.

Ideally, the natural frequency should be high and the damping factor should be near 0. With a single pole filter, it is not possible to control the loop frequency and damping factor independently.

For the case of critical damping,. A slightly more effective filter, the lag-lead filter includes one pole and one zero. This can be realized with two resistors and one capacitor.

The transfer function for this filter is. The loop filter components can be calculated independently for a given natural frequency and damping factor.

Real world loop filter design can be much more complex e. See the D Banerjee ref below. Digital phase locked loops can be implemented in hardware, using integrated circuits such as a CMOS However, with microcontrollers becoming faster, it may make sense to implement a phase locked loop in software for applications that do not require locking onto signals in the MHz range or faster, such as precisely controlling motor speeds.

Software implementation has several advantages including easy customization of the feedback loop including changing the multiplication or division ratio between the signal being tracked and the output oscillator.

Furthermore, a software implementation is useful to understand and experiment with. As an example of a phase-locked loop implemented using a phase frequency detector is presented in MATLAB, as this type of phase detector is robust and easy to implement.

This example uses integer arithmetic rather than floating point, as such an example is likely more useful in practice. In this example, an array tracksig is assumed to contain a reference signal to be tracked.

This code simulates the two D-type flip-flops that comprise a phase-frequency comparator. When either the reference or signal has a positive edge, the corresponding flip-flop switches high.

Once both reference and signal is high, both flip-flops are reset. Which flip-flop is high determines at that instant whether the reference or signal leads the other.

The error signal is the difference between these two flip-flop values. The pole-zero filter is implemented by adding the error signal and its derivative to the filtered error signal.

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If two interacting waves meet at a point where they are in antiphase, then destructive interference will occur. It is common for waves of electromagnetic light, RF , acoustic sound or other energy to become superposed in their transmission medium.

When that happens, the phase difference determines whether they reinforce or weaken each other. Complete cancellation is possible for waves with equal amplitudes.

Time is sometimes used instead of angle to express position within the cycle of an oscillation. A phase difference is analogous to two athletes running around a race track at the same speed and direction but starting at different positions on the track.

They pass a point at different instants in time. But the time difference phase difference between them is a constant - same for every pass since they are at the same speed and in the same direction.

If they were at different speeds different frequencies , the phase difference is undefined and would only reflect different starting positions.

Technically, phase difference between two entities at various frequencies is undefined and does not exist. A real-world example of a sonic phase difference occurs in the warble of a Native American flute.

The amplitude of different harmonic components of same long-held note on the flute come into dominance at different points in the phase cycle.

The phase difference between the different harmonics can be observed on a spectrogram of the sound of a warbling flute. Phase comparison is a comparison of the phase of two waveforms, usually of the same nominal frequency.

In time and frequency, the purpose of a phase comparison is generally to determine the frequency offset difference between wave cycles with respect to a reference.

A phase comparison can be made by connecting two signals to a two-channel oscilloscope.

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